One of the advantages of using Azure Web App is how easy it is to deploy a NodeJS app. If you have an app as simple as this one, Azure Web App will pick it up, install all the node dependencies, and serve the app on port 80. And you are done!!!

Unfortunately, a lot of times, you might want to venture outside the comfort of auto-deploy land, and do some customization. Maybe your public directory isn’t called /public, or if you want to install yarn package manager, or install dev-dependencies to build your client-side code.

Azure Deployment Magic (Kudu)

When you deploy a project on Azure Web App, it is using the Azure’s deployment engine called Kudu. Kudu will look at a couple of things to determine how to deploy your app. If you have a package.json, Kudu will think you have a Node App.

Overall Process

  1. repository directory changes, Kudu process is triggered
  2. Kudu determines that it’s a node app
  3. If there is no web.config or iisnode.yml in your repo, Kudu tries to generate it
  4. Kudu tries to figure out the Node version you want
  5. If there is no .deployment in your repo, Kudu generates and runs deploy.cmd

The web.config file

The web.config file configures the IIS server. With this XML-formatted file, your IIS server knows how to handle a request that hits it. The most important part of the config file for the Node app is the entry file.

If you already have a web.config file in your repo, Kudu will not try to generate a new one, and just load your web.config file.

However, if you don’t have a web.config, Kudu will try to generate one for you. In order to do that, Kudu needs to know where is the entry file. Kudu tries to find your entry file in these steps:

  1. Looks for "scripts":{"start":command} in your package.json. Kudu assumes your command is node filename, so if you are using more robust tools like better-npm-run, this heuristic will break. The script checks to see if the file exists, if it does not, goes to the next step.
  2. Looks for app.js or server.js, if either exists in the root repo path, Kudu sets it has the entry file.

Once Kudu found the entry file, it generates the web.config file using this template. Notice that it is simply putting the file path into the {NodeStartFile} string in the template, and letting the iisnode module handling the request.

The iisnode.yml file

The iisnode.yml is a configuration file that set various settings for the iisnode module. For the whole list of options you can set See this blog post on iisnode.yml.

The important setting is nodeProcessCommandLine which sets the exact path to the node executable. see this example

If you don’t have a iisnode.yml file, then Kudu will try to determine your Node Version

Node Version for your app

Kudu needs to know which version of node you want to run your app and deployment. It will try to find the version you want by following these steps. If not satisfied, goes to the next step:

  1. If there is a iisnode.yml and nodeProcessCommandLine property inside: it will run that exact path of node.
  2. If in your package.json, there is an "engines":{"node":version} specification, Azure will use the specified version
  3. In Application Settings on the Azure portal, you have WEBSITE_NODE_DEFAULT_VERSION set as one of the environment variables
  4. The default Node version for Azure. The exact version changes over time.

The .deployment and deploy.cmd file

deploy.cmd is the script that Kudu runs to “build” your project.

If you don’t have a .deployment file in your repo, Kudu will assume you want to use the default deployment script for your application. This is the Node Deployment Script (deploy.cmd) that will run.

The part of the script we care about is the Deployment section.

Note: The npm install command in the script is npm install --production, but even if you delete the --production flag, NPM will still ignore your dev-dependencies. This is because when npm install runs, it looks at your “NODE_ENV” environment variable, and if it’s “prod” or “production”, NPM will ignore your dev-dependencies. Kudu sets your “NODE_ENV” to “production” by default.

If you want to change your deployment process, you will need to add a .deployment file with a “command” config value (See example), and a deploy.cmd file (See example).

Common Deployment Tweaks

Change Node Version

  1. Add "engines":{"node":version} to your package.json file.

Change public directory

  1. Create a web.config file, (See Example of a web.config).
  2. Change the url property of the action node under StaticContent

Change Entry File

  1. Create a web.config file, (See Example of a web.config).
  2. Change path property under the handlers node
  3. Change url property under the rule name="NodeInspector" node
  4. Change url property under the rule name="DynamicContent" node

OR if you don’t want to create a custom web.config

  1. change your start script in your package.json to node example.js (replace example.js with your entry file)

Install dev dependencies

  1. Create a .deployment file
  2. Duplicate a deploy.cmd file, and find the line
    call :ExecuteCmd !NPM_CMD! install --production.
  3. Add call :ExecuteCmd !NPM_CMD! install --only=dev right after that line.


  • Azure Web App uses Kudu to deploy your app (when using git CI)
  • Kudu does not run your npm start script. It might look like it is if your start script is node server.js
  • If you don’t have a web.config, Kudu will try to generate a web.config for you with the following steps to get the starter file.
    • Kudu tries to extract the entry file path from your npm start script
    • Kudu looks for either a server.js or app.js in the root of your repository if npm start extraction wasn’t successful.

Useful Code References